johann sebastian bach

21 March] 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. [17], Bach also wrote secular cantatas, for instance for members of the royal Polish and prince-electoral Saxonian families (e.g. [115], In concerted playing in Bach's time the basso continuo, consisting of instruments such as organ, viola da gamba or harpsichord, usually had the role of accompaniment, providing the harmonic and rhythmic foundation of a piece. Ieder jaar wordt met Goede Vrijdag de Mattheus Passion gespeeld. Similarly, for the cello suites, the virtuoso music seems tailored for the instrument, the best of what is offered for it, yet Bach made an arrangement for lute of one of these suites. Bach's motets (BWV 225–231) are pieces on sacred themes for choir and continuo, with instruments playing colla parte. [188][189] Beethoven played the entire Well-Tempered Clavier by the time he was 11 and described Bach as Urvater der Harmonie (progenitor of harmony). De kleine Johann Sebastian verhuist naar Ohrdruf, waar hij wordt opgenomen in het gezin van zijn oudste broer Johann Christoph, die daar organist is. [33], Bach's time in Weimar was the start of a sustained period of composing keyboard and orchestral works. For instance, Kuhnau, Bach's predecessor in Leipzig, had notoriously shunned opera and Italian virtuoso vocal music. [179][180][181] Several students of the old master, such as his son-in-law Johann Christoph Altnickol, Johann Friedrich Agricola, Johann Kirnberger, and Johann Ludwig Krebs, contributed to the dissemination of his legacy. Throughout the 18th century, the appreciation of Bach's music was mostly limited to distinguished connoisseurs. He was the son of Johann Ambrosius Bach, the director of the town musicians, and Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt. [182][183] Sara Itzig Levy became an avid collector of works by Johann Sebastian Bach and his sons and was a "patron" of CPE Bach. Throughout the 18th century Bach was primarily valued as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier, was appreciated for its didactic qualities. 1 in D minor, BWV 1052, performed by Ben Goldstein as written down by Bach, Brahms' piano version performed by Martha Goldstein, Double Violin Concerto in D minor BWV 1043, List of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach, Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother, List of fugal works by Johann Sebastian Bach, 1. [109] In the "Suscepit Israel" of his 1723 Magnificat, he had the trumpets in E-flat play a melody in the enharmonic scale of C minor. [170] During his life, Bach received public recognition, such as the title of court composer by Augustus III of Poland and the appreciation he was shown by Frederick the Great and Hermann Karl von Keyserling. [40] Bach's first Christmas cantata, Christen, ätzet diesen Tag, BWV 63, was premiered in 1714 or 1715. Johann Sebastian Bach (Eisenach, 21 maart 1685 – Leipzig, 28 juli 1750) was een Duitse componist uit de barokke periode. Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach was best known during his lifetime as an organist, organ consultant, and composer of organ works in both the traditional German free genres (such as preludes, fantasias, and toccatas) and stricter forms (such as chorale preludes and fugues). Bach started a second annual cycle the first Sunday after Trinity of 1724 and composed only chorale cantatas, each based on a single church hymn. [17] At a young age, he established a reputation for creativity and ability to integrate foreign styles into his organ works. In the second half of the 19th century, the Society published a comprehensive edition of the composer's works. Reinhard Goebel heeft ze opgenomen met de Musiqua Antiqua Köln. His Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother, a very early work, showed a gusto for modulation unlike any contemporary work this composition has been compared to,[111] but the full expansion came with the Well-Tempered Clavier, using all keys, which Bach apparently had been developing since around 1720, the Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach being one of its earliest examples.[112]. In Thüringen werd het woord Bach als synoniem voor musicus gebruikt.. Johann Sebastian Bach heeft zelf een stamboom gemaakt om de muzikaliteit van zijn voorouders te kunnen illustreren. [59] A cantata was required for the church services on Sundays and additional church holidays during the liturgical year. Bach heeft ongelofelijk veel gecomponeerd. [117] Apart from the 5th Brandenburg Concerto and the Triple Concerto, which already had harpsichord soloists in the 1720s, Bach wrote and arranged his harpsichord concertos in the 1730s,[118] and in his sonatas for viola da gamba and harpsichord neither instrument plays a continuo part: they are treated as equal soloists, far beyond the figured bass. His father probably taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, and his brother Johann Christoph Bach taught him the clavichord and exposed him to much of the contemporary music. ", Bach's best-known orchestral works are the Brandenburg Concertos, so named because he submitted them in the hope of gaining employment from Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg-Schwedt in 1721; his application was unsuccessful. During that time he gained further prestige through honorary appointments at the courts of Köthen and Weissenfels, as well as that of the Elector Frederick Augustus (who was also King of Poland) in Dresden. To serve that end a simple accompaniment will not suffice. Johann Sebastian Bach, Soundtrack: Minority Report. [citation needed], Bach's earliest cantatas date from his years in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen. [210][211][212], Bach's music features three times—more than that of any other composer—on the Voyager Golden Record, a gramophone record containing a broad sample of the images, common sounds, languages, and music of Earth, sent into outer space with the two Voyager probes. He wrote extensively for organ and for other keyboard instruments. [90] Becoming blind, Bach underwent eye surgery, in March 1750 and again in April, by the British eye surgeon John Taylor, a man widely understood today as a charlatan and believed to have blinded hundreds of people. [148] Some of the secular cantatas had a plot involving mythological figures of Greek antiquity (e.g. 3 in D major, BWV 1068, "Sheep May Safely Graze" (instrumental version), List of masses, passions and oratorios by Johann Sebastian Bach § Passions and oratorios, List of secular cantatas by Johann Sebastian Bach, List of chorale harmonisations by Johann Sebastian Bach, List of organ compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach, List of solo keyboard compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach, List of chamber music works by Johann Sebastian Bach, List of orchestral works by Johann Sebastian Bach, Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg-Schwedt, Keyboard concertos by Johann Sebastian Bach, List of transcriptions of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Ueber Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke, International Johann Sebastian Bach Competition, International Music Score Library Project, liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church, "Johann Sebastian Bach: a detailed informative biography", "The Portrait in Erfurt Alleged to Depict Bach, the Weimar Concertmeister", "Bach's biography: professional organist (1703 - 1708)", "Cantatas for Christmas Day: Herderkirche, Weimar", "From konzertmeister to thomaskantor: Bach's cantata production 1713–1723", "Works of Other Composers performed by J.S. [25] In August 1703, he became the organist at the New Church,[26] with light duties, a relatively generous salary, and a new organ tuned in a temperament that allowed music written in a wider range of keys to be played. Bach's father, Johann Ambrosius, married Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt on April 8, 1668. A Bach Revival had started from Mendelssohn's performance of the St Matthew Passion in 1829. [29][30] As part of his application, he had a cantata performed on Easter, 24 April 1707, likely an early version of his Christ lag in Todes Banden. Johann Sebastian Bach (31 March [O.S. [54], Johann Kuhnau had been Thomaskantor in Leipzig from 1701 until his death on 5 June 1722. But when Bach was installed as cantor in 1723, he was put in charge only of music for festal (church holiday) services at the Paulinerkirche; his petition to also provide music for regular Sunday services there (for a corresponding salary increase) went all the way to the Elector but was denied. He died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65. This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 21:23. Johann Sebastian Bach (Eisenach, 21 maart 1685 - Leipzig, 28 juli 1750) was een Duits organist, componist, violist en dirigent van barokmuziek.Hij wordt gezien als een van de meest belangrijke componisten uit de gehele geschiedenis van de klassieke muziek. Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organisation, and his adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Some months later Bach upset his employer by a prolonged absence from Arnstadt: after obtaining leave for four weeks, he was absent for around four months in 1705–1706 to visit the organist and composer Dieterich Buxtehude in the northern city of Lübeck. GEEN MUSICOLOOG zal ontkennen dat Bach zijn composities een diepere betekenis verleende door middel van symboliek. He sought collaboration with various text authors for his cantatas and major vocal compositions, possibly writing or adapting such texts himself to make them fit the structure of the composition he was designing when he could not rely on the talents of other text authors. On 2 June, Heinrich von Brühl wrote to one of the Leipzig burgomasters to request that his music director, Johann Gottlob Harrer, fill the Thomaskantor and Director musices posts "upon the eventual ... decease of Mr. [15][16] He received valuable teaching from his brother, who instructed him on the clavichord. [49] Together they had 13 more children, 6 of whom survived into adulthood: Gottfried Heinrich; Elisabeth Juliane Friederica (1726–1781); Johann Christoph Friedrich and Johann Christian, who both, especially Johann Christian, became significant musicians; Johanna Carolina (1737–1781); and Regina Susanna (1742–1809). De familie Bach is een breed vertakt muzikaal geslacht en volgens bronnen muzikaal actief sinds de eerste helft van de 16e eeuw. Apart from his own work, Bach also performed cantatas by Telemann and by his distant relative Johann Ludwig Bach. [140] Around 20 church cantatas are extant from his later years in Weimar, for instance, Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis, BWV 21.[141]. His uncles were church organists, court musicians and composers. [13], Bach's mother died in 1694, and his father died eight months later. 1 in C major BWV 846 performed on harpsichord by Robert Schröter, Brandenburg Concerto No. Verder was zijn vaders huis de verzamelplek van de musici uit de stad en was er haast elke dag wel muziek te horen. In this sense, Bach played a key role in the development of genres such as the keyboard concerto.[119]. All kinds of publications involved Bach: not only were there the Bach Jahrbuch publications of the Neue Bachgesellschaft, various other biographies and studies by among others Albert Schweitzer, Charles Sanford Terry, Alfred Dürr, Christoph Wolff. [97] Approximately 200 of these sacred works are extant, an estimated two thirds of the total number of church cantatas he composed. Hence harmony becomes no longer a mere accompaniment of melody, but rather a potent agency for augmenting the richness and expressiveness of musical conversation. A significant influence upon Bach's musical development during his years with the prince is recorded by Stauffer as Bach's "complete embrace of dance music, perhaps the most important influence on his mature style other than his adoption of Vivaldi's music in Weimar. Hij componeerde voornamelijk muziek voor de kerk. [64] Bach was not required to play any organ in his official duties, but it is believed he liked to play on the Paulinerkirche organ "for his own pleasure". [201] Chopin started composing his 24 Preludes, Op. Bach was born in 1685 in Eisenach, in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach, into an extensive musical family. [17][19] His two years there were critical in exposing Bach to a wider range of European culture. [151] The six motets definitely composed by Bach are Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, Der Geist hilft unser Schwachheit auf, Jesu, meine Freude, Fürchte dich nicht, Komm, Jesu, komm, and Lobet den Herrn, alle Heiden. Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer, organist, harpsichordist, violist, and violinist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra, and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity. Hij gaf een overzicht in de oorsprong der musicalisch-Bachischen Familie. "[20], Despite being born in the same year and only about 130 kilometres (80 mi) apart, Bach and Handel never met. Al heel jong krijgt Bach viool- en klavecimbelles van zijn vader, en orgelles van zijn oom Johann … [167] Later, he copied and arranged music for performance or as study material for his pupils. [18][19] Their journey was probably undertaken mostly on foot. Amore traditore). Performing at weddings and funerals provided extra income for these groups; it was probably for this purpose, and for in-school training, that he wrote at least six motets. [213] Tributes to Bach in the 20th century include statues erected in his honour and a variety of things such as streets and space objects being named after him. Upon his return to Leipzig he composed a set of fugues and canons, and a trio sonata, based on the Thema Regium (theme of the king). [52] This was "the leading cantorate in Protestant Germany",[53] located in the mercantile city in the Electorate of Saxony, which he held for 27 years until his death. Bach wrote virtuoso music for specific instruments as well as music independent of instrumentation. The early devotees were not all musicians; for example, in Berlin, Daniel Itzig, a high official of Frederick the Great's court, venerated Bach. After leaving Weimar, Bach wrote less for organ, although some of his best-known works (the six Organ Sonatas, the German Organ Mass in Clavier-Übung III from 1739, and the Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes, revised late in his life) were composed after leaving Weimar. Bach also started work on the Little Organ Book in Weimar, containing traditional Lutheran chorale tunes set in complex textures. Among these were the Swingle Singers' versions of Bach pieces (for instance, the Air from Orchestral Suite No. The most important member of the family, his genius combined outstanding performing musicianship with supreme creative powers in which forceful and original inventiveness, technical mastery and intellectual control are perfectly balanced. In 1850, the Bach-Gesellschaft (Bach Society) was founded to promote Bach's music. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival, he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time.[3][4]. Johann Sebastian Bach, (born March 21 [March 31, New Style], 1685, Eisenach, Thuringia, Ernestine Saxon Duchies [Germany]—died July 28, 1750, Leipzig), composer of the Baroque era, the most celebrated member of a large family of north German musicians.Although he was admired by his contemporaries primarily as an outstanding harpsichordist, organist, and expert on organ building, Bach … [74] Bach's own style shifted in the last decade of his life, showing an increased integration of polyphonic structures and canons and other elements of the stile antico. The 19th century saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, and by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. Bach passie was vooral klassiek, verder had hij maar een paar muziekstukken die niet klassiek zijn. The prince was a Calvinist and did not use elaborate music in his worship; accordingly, most of Bach's work from this period was secular,[44] including the orchestral suites, cello suites, sonatas and partitas for solo violin, and Brandenburg Concertos. [216] High-resolution facsimiles of Bach's autographs became available at the Bach Digital website. Dat kwam onder andere doordat hij veel muziek schreef voor de Kerk. Hij heeft meer dan duizend muziekstukken geschreven. [17] His first cantata cycle ran from the first Sunday after Trinity of 1723 to Trinity Sunday the next year. Hij wordt gezien als een van de meest belangrijke componisten uit de gehele geschiedenis van de klassieke muziek. [155][156] The Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her" and the Schübler Chorales are organ works Bach published in the last years of his life. Five are mentioned in obituaries, three are extant. Johann Sebastian krijgt al op zeer jonge leeftijd van zijn vader Johann Ambrosius Bach vioolles. In this sense, it is no surprise that Bach's music is easily and often performed on instruments it was not necessarily written for, that it is transcribed so often, and that his melodies turn up in unexpected places such as jazz music. Johann Sebastian Bach: Complete Organ Works. Although Bach did not write any operas, he was not averse to the genre or its ornamented vocal style. "justifiably considered among Bach's finest contributions", writes Nicholas Anderson in Boyd, Ed., 1999, "Especially in its opening chorus, it is one of Bach's contrapuntal masterpieces": Robin A. Leaver in Boyd, ed., 1999, "one of Bach's best-known church works" wrote David Schulenberg in Boyd, ed., 1999, Johann Sebastian Bach. [81], In 1746 Bach was preparing to enter Lorenz Christoph Mizler's Society of Musical Sciences [de]. For instance, the "Aria" of the Goldberg Variations has rich ornamentation in nearly every measure. Geschreven bij Johann Sebastian Bach. The 19th century started with publication of the first biography of the composer and ended with the completion of the publication of all of Bach's known works by the Bach Gesellschaft. Many of the harpsichord concertos were not original works but arrangements of his concertos for other instruments, now lost. (Morris 2005, p. 2). [209] Around 2000, the 250th anniversary of Bach's death, three record companies issued box sets with complete recordings of Bach's music. His father, named Johann Ambrosius Bach, was a violinist and trumpeter, employed by the city of Eisenach. Within a few weeks this music was published as The Musical Offering and dedicated to Frederick. From 1726 he published some of his keyboard and organ music. His grave went unmarked for nearly 150 years, but in 1894 his remains were located and moved to a vault in St. John's Church. His Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue, emulating the chromatic fantasia genre as used by earlier composers such as Dowland and Sweelinck in D dorian mode (comparable to D minor in the tonal system), is an example of this. Fugues are as characteristic to Bach's style as, for instance, the Sonata form is characteristic to the composers of the Classical period. [82] In order to be admitted Bach had to submit a composition, for which he chose his Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her", and a portrait, which was painted by Elias Gottlob Haussmann and featured Bach's Canon triplex á 6 Voc. [87][88] After extracting a cantata, BWV 191, from his 1733 Kyrie-Gloria Mass for the Dresden court in the mid 1740s, Bach expanded that setting into his Mass in B minor in the last years of his life. Prince Leopold, himself a musician, appreciated Bach's talents, paid him well and gave him considerable latitude in composing and performing. In 1733, Bach composed a Kyrie–Gloria Mass in B minor which he later incorporated in his Mass in B minor. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Brandenburg Concertos and the Goldberg Variations, and vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Op deze … Dat klonk goed, maar veel van die spontane orgelstukken zijn niet opgeschreven. Jahrhundert zurückverfolgbare väterliche Vorfahren und Verwandte fast alle als Kantoren, Organisten, Stadtpfeifer, Mitglieder von Hofkapellen oder Clavichord/Cembalo- und Lautenbauern im Raum zwischen Werra und Saale tätig waren. One of the comments after a performance of his St Matthew Passion was that it all sounded much like opera. His father, Johann Ambrosius Bach, was the director of the town musicians, and all of his uncles were professional musicians. Sometimes "who copied whom" is not clear. BWV 172 § Background, Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her", 1733 Kyrie-Gloria Mass for the Dresden court, Klavierbüchlein für Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, Keyboard Concerto No. Bach filed a complaint against Geyersbach with the authorities. In Leipzig, as had happened during some of his earlier positions, he had difficult relations with his employer, a situation that was little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by his sovereign, Augustus, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, in 1736. The visit to Buxtehude involved a 450-kilometre (280 mi) journey each way, reportedly on foot. Religie speelde een belangrijke rol in het leven en werk van Bach. [57] Telemann went to Hamburg, where he "had his own struggles with the city's senate".[58]. In his early youth, Bach copied pieces by other composers to learn from them. She remained to help run the household until her death in 1729. [27][28], In 1706, Bach applied for a post as organist at the Blasius Church in Mühlhausen. Bach's appointment as Court Composer was an element of his long-term struggle to achieve greater bargaining power with the Leipzig council. In zijn tijd was hij vooral bekend als organist, maar nu is hij een van de beroemdste componisten aller tijden. [53] Bach frequently disagreed with his employer, Leipzig's city council, which he regarded as "penny-pinching". [103], Bach published or carefully compiled in manuscript many collections of pieces that explored the range of artistic and technical possibilities inherent in almost every genre of his time except opera. From about the year 1720, when he was thirty-five, until his death in 1750, Bach's harmony consists in this melodic interweaving of independent melodies, so perfect in their union that each part seems to constitute the true melody. One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach (1645–1693), introduced him to the organ, and an older second cousin, Johann Ludwig Bach (1677–1731), was a well-known composer and violinist. [190][209], In the 21st century, Bach's compositions have become available online, for instance at the International Music Score Library Project. [190][191][192][193][194], In 1802, Johann Nikolaus Forkel published Ueber Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke, the first biography of the composer, which contributed to his becoming known to a wider public. Many of Bach's works during the 1730s and 1740s were written for and performed by the Collegium Musicum; among these were parts of his Clavier-Übung (Keyboard Practice) and many of his violin and keyboard concertos.[17]. [31] A month later Bach's application was accepted and he took up the post in July. The melody of the concluding chorale often appears as a cantus firmus in the opening movement. Misschien is dat wel een wereldrecord! Late one evening this student, named Geyersbach, went after Bach with a stick. Bach-Gesellschaft Ausgabe (Bach, Johann Sebastian) Neue Bach-Ausgabe (Bach, Johann Sebastian) A. L'Album des douze (Hansen, Nikolaj) Album for Violin and Harmonium (Hansen, Nikolaj) Album für das einhändige Klavierspiel (Hochstetter, Cäsar) Album klassischer Stücke für Violine (Rundnagel, Carl) In the first case the accompaniment is subordinate, and serves merely to support the first or principal part. The St John Passion saw its 19th-century premiere in 1833, and the first performance of the Mass in B minor followed in 1844. Bach trouwde in zijn leven twee keer en kreeg twintig kinderen. Such highly placed appreciation contrasted with the humiliations he had to cope with, for instance in his hometown of Leipzig. 3 in G minor for viola da gamba and harpsichord BWV 1029 performed by John Michel, Continuo instruments moving to the front (here performed on cello and piano), A strictly contrapuntal composition (the two violins playing in canon throughout) in the guise of an Italian type of concerto, Analysis of the counterpoint of the chorale prelude, The images of this video show the intertwining of melodies and motives, including the melody of the chorale ", performed by Solomija Drozd (voice), Petro Titiajev (violin) and Ivan Ostapovych (organ). [60][136] The Bach Digital website lists 50 known secular cantatas by the composer,[137] about half of which are extant or largely reconstructable. In the last years of his life, Bach revised several of his prior compositions. [39] The first three cantatas in the new series Bach composed in Weimar were Himmelskönig, sei willkommen, BWV 182, for Palm Sunday, which coincided with the Annunciation that year; Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, Zagen, BWV 12, for Jubilate Sunday; and Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! By 3 April 1700, Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bach's elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. Michael's School in Lüneburg, some two weeks' travel north of Ohrdruf. His music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangements, including, for instance, the Air on the G String, and of recordings, such as three different box sets with complete performances of the composer's oeuvre marking the 250th anniversary of his death. [24] His role there is unclear, but it probably included menial, non-musical duties. Even in his four-part writing we can, not infrequently, leave out the upper and lower parts and still find the middle parts melodious and agreeable. He also programmed and adapted music by composers of a younger generation, including Pergolesi (BWV 1083)[80] and his own students such as Goldberg (BNB I/G/2). [139] Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit, BWV 106, also known as Actus Tragicus, is a funeral cantata from the Mühlhausen period. Enkele kinderen waren ook zeer muzikaal en hebben ook gecomponeerd. Recitative "Er kommt, er kommt, der Bräut'gam kommt", 4. Johann Sebastian Bach (31 March 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. [17] He came into contact with sons of aristocrats from northern Germany who were sent to the highly selective school to prepare for careers in other disciplines. Van 10 april t/m 10 mei staat WikiKids in het teken van de Spaanse en Portugese eilanden! The same applies to much of his most virtuoso keyboard music. [220], The liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church remembers Bach annually with a feast day on 28 July, together with George Frideric Handel and Henry Purcell; on the same day, the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church remembers Bach and Handel with Heinrich Schütz.
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